The occasion of marriage for a South Indian bride is incomplete without a Kanchipuram saree in her trosseau. Among the wide range of silk sarees available in India, from the Benares silk saree to the Patola from Patan, the Kanchipuram saree holds a special position. The strength and magnificence of the Kanchipuram saree makes it one of the favourites among ladies all over the world.Now that the world has become a global village, Kanchipuram sarees are available the world over. However, the production of these beautiful sarees is still centred in Kanchipuram, a small town located on the Palar river in South India. Also called Kanchi, the town is renowned for its silk industry and its temples.The origin of the Kanchipuram saree dates back to centuries ago, when these sarees used to be woven in temples. Kanchipuram sarees, woven from pure mulberry silk, are found in myriad colours. These sarees have borders and ‘pallu’ in a contrast colour with heavy gold weaving. Kanchipuram sarees traditionally had designs representing simple gold lines or gold dots. The designs in these sarees were inspired by the designs in South Indian temples or natural elements like birds, leaves, etc. Some of the best known patterns in Kanchipuram saree borders are ‘Rudraksham’ (representing Rudraksha beads), ‘Gopuram’ (representing temples), ‘Mayilkan’ (Peacock eye) and ‘Kuyilkan’ (Nightingale eye). Keeping in view the changing trends, Kanchipuram silk sarees have undergone a transformation. Now, even Kanchipuram designer silk sarees are available, with embroidery or crystal work done on the traditional silk saree. One of the latest trends in these sarees is using ancient paintings and the images of gods and goddesses in the ‘pallu’.In an authentic Kanchipuram silk saree, the body of the saree and the ‘pallu’ are woven separately and then stitched together. The distinctive weaving technique of a Kanchipuram silk saree using three single threads of silk yarn along with ‘zari’, that is silk threads dipped in liquid gold and silver. The mulberry silk comes from the state of Karnataka and the gold ‘zari’ comes from Surat. In spite of Kanchipuram becoming a world-famous silk industry centre, the town does not manufacture silk or any other raw material used in the production of a silk saree.The town of Kanchipuram is well known as “Silk City” because almost ¾ of its population is dependent upon the silk industry. Skilled and semi-skilled weavers from neighbouring towns like Salem, Arani, Coimbatore and Kumbakonam are also involved in the production of silk sarees.View Full ArticleCopyright © 2007
Guidance for Fabric Manufacturers and Apparel ExportersLate delivery of fabric leading to air shipment of apparel export orders is a nightmare to both the fabric suppliers and the hapless apparel exporter. Supply Chain Integrity of apparel business heavily depends on the timely delivery of fabric. Still, most of the fabric and garment manufacturers face this issue every now and then, finally resulting in the buyers’ demand of shipping the merchandise by air, or worse, cancellation of the order and slapping of stiff penalty.Air shipment costs are prohibitively expensive. One air shipment can wipe out the profit of several other orders and only makes the air cargo companies richer! Sometimes the air freight cost may go as high as 40 to 50 percent of the cost of garments. Further, the relationship among all three partners in this supply chain- the fabric supplier, garment exporter and the buyer gets affected, making future business difficult. Is there any foolproof solution?After spending long years of association with the business of textiles in India & Far Eastern countries and coming across thousands of cases of late shipments and timely shipments, I could discover a more or less well defined pattern that determines whether a fabric shipment would go on-time or late.Most interestingly, the fate is decided sometimes as early as during the finalization of the order and in other cases, during progress of the order. Contrary to popular beliefs, the earlier a problem develops, the more it becomes difficult to manage the timely delivery.
Each textile fabric order passes through a lengthy and unique process in many ways. Some of those are:* Almost each order is tailor made, to the specific requirement which varies from order to order, even for the same product.* Raw material standards vary from time to time. The same process/ methods/ technical conditions may not give the same result every time.* Quality Approvals for many parameters like shades, hand-feel, surface appearance etc. may by subjective and conditional more than often.* Once inside even the most modern machines, the behavior of textiles cannot be predicted always and results may vary due to even the slightest change in the internal and external ambiance even within the same process control route.Those were just few of the challenges that can throw an order progression out of gear, finally requiring corrections and re-processing that can delay the delivery. The list is much longer and beyond the scope of this article. Yet, a few qualitative precautions can ensure minimum variations en-route, lower wastages of resources and time of both sides. Final result is timely deliveries and lowered cost. Here we go through each critical stage: 1. Fabric Order Placement – The Most Important StageMany apparel merchandisers consider fabric as one of the raw material components similar to buttons, labels, interlining etc. A factor should be considered here that the fabric is THE most important and complex component. A wrong button or thread can be changed even at a short notice of a week or so. It is very difficult to correct or replace a wrong fabric within such short notice. The fabric manufacturer on the other hand should understand the requirement with a clinical precision.In most cases, a fabric order is finalized by a field sales representative or a sales manager and the order is placed by an apparel merchandiser or a fabric purchase manager without checking the feasibility and all other requirements with the manufacturing point. That is a guaranteed passport to disaster. If everything including the delivery lead time looks feasible comfortably, then only the order should be taken by a fabric manufacturer. It is prudent to refuse orders which cannot be taken with 100% confidence because customers are not guinea pigs for experiments and fallout of badly managed orders hurt everyone. Suppliers who refuse orders they are not comfortable with are respected by buyers.Price quotations play a vital role. Traditional costing systems are dated and should only be used as a rough guideline. The pricing should also should be worked out in harmony with the market rates of a particular quality. When the volume is high or the potential is exciting, it is wiser to quote a competitive rate and minimize the cost by increased efficiency and better RFT (Right First Time) which in most cases determine the actual costs.The fabric purchasing agency/ buyer should conduct an audit of the fabric manufacturing facility based on their requirement before putting the supplier on their vendor list. Some of the important audit points are:a. Quality policy/ accreditation of the fabric manufacturing unit.
b. Testing lab, availability of required instruments like colour matching system, color dispenser, fabric pilling tester, fastness tester, strength meter, abrasion resistant meter etc. & its documentation system.
c. Pre-production sample making capability and infrastructure.
d. Sample presentation and quality of labeling.
e. ERP Management functionality.
f. Machinery and shop-floor housekeeping in general.
g. Documentation of order process flow-right from pre-order stage to finishing & packing.In general, a recognized Quality Assurance Certification like ISO 9000-2000 takes care of the above points but in some cases the system is followed more on paper than delivering actual result. A wise buyer’s audit should be able to see through the weak points and get assurance of correction. 2. Fabric Manufacturing Plan – The Next Most Critical StageAt any point of time, several orders would be running at any point of time. The PPC (Production Planning & Control) plays a crucial role. I have seen many cases where change in manufacturing plan is effected at the behest of people at the top, without considering the negative fallout of such decisions. This practice without considering the overall impact is amateurish and must be avoided. 3. Raw Material PlanThe cheapest raw material may not protect the interest of the business. Yet, in many cases, either to save cost or to make more money, the raw material quality is sacrificed, leading to low manufacturing efficiency, sub-standard output, re-processing, delays, quality complaints and finally loss to everyone, not to mention cancellation of orders or slapping of penalties by buyers. 4. Process ControlMany textile manufacturers, in an attempt to save costs, change the process control parameters without establishing quality beforehand. Result-undesirable output, leading to delay and quality claims. Textile fibres are very sensitive items and even a slight change in processing method may give vastly different results.
Also it is important to have a well maintained record of all process conditions preserved for different results performed. 5. ERP-The Navigator of BusinessA good ERP based management pays in the long run. It saves lot of time and money in avoiding costly mistakes, shipment delay, improved follow ups and has a strong documentation base.Fortunately, Indian textile manufacturers understand the importance of ERP, albeit the progress needs to be faster. 6. Internal Communication-A Stitch in Time Saves NineThe documents received from buyer for compliance with the guideline of sales process should be carefully read and followed by everyone along the process path. The fabric samples for proto-garments, for sales samples, for correlation test yardages etc. are extremely important points and the time lines are sacrosanct. Strong administration of these points by a quality team reduces chance of late deliveries. This calls for a foolproof internal communication among all concerned departments. 7. External Communication Keeps Trust and Relationship AliveThe last but not the least-an open, trustworthy exchange of communication with customers is invaluable in the business of textiles. I have seen many times, if an order goes wrong, the manufacturing side does not inform the customer-with a fear that the buyer will get upset. But in fact, such ‘silence’ actually makes the buyer more worried.In the manufacturing of textile fabrics, despite taking all precautions, things may and will go wrong sometimes. In such cases, it is wise to inform the buyer immediately and offer alternative solution.Yes, it needs a lot of courage and love for the business to be transparent with customers when some disaster happens. But at the end of the day, the integrity creates a bond of trust, which is all the most required in today’s tough business situation.
Artifact made by weaving or felting or knitting or crocheting natural or synthetic fibers is called fabric. Fabric is the primary material to make a cloth piece. For textile industry fabric is most essential thing to have and be produced. You can not do anything without fabric. Besides making clothes for wearing in interior designing, and upholster furniture textile is very important. A good and bright cloth can make your interior or a dress so beautiful and comfortable. There are many types of fabrics which can serve your purposes. While you are going to buy fabric you must be careful about certain things and they are the price range, then comes your necessity whether you want natural or artificial fabric or between them etc. and another most important thing is for what you are going to use them. You will for sure not use a textile for curtain to make your wedding dress. Therefore choose a shop specially selling that kind of fabrics. Another very handy and cheap destination for fabrics can be wholesale shop. You will be getting the textile at a cheaper price than you could if you bought it in smaller amounts from a store. The more silk fabric or chiffon fabric that you buy wholesale, the cheaper the price will be for each yard that you buy. While you might not be able to use large amounts of wholesale fabric for your family, when you get together with other families that would like to buy fabric wholesale, you might find that you can get the textile at cheap prices and then divide it amongst those who have contributed money.You can buy silk fabric from a wholesaler shop. Among various fabrics available in market silk fabric is most desired and popular for its soft and sensational touch and feel. It makes the user comfortable and makes him or her looking better than any other textile. Silk fabric was discovered in china and it is mainly produced in India, china and other eastern countries naturally. Apart from this artificial and mechanical silk is also produced all over the world. Chiffon, georgette, art silk, Viscose and satin are mainly different kinds of silk fabric. With silk somewhere cotton and other materials are mixed to get all these types of cloths. It is a sophisticated and luxury fabric with superb texture and luster. It is great for draping, sheets and pillows. It makes rooms to look spectacular.Silk is sated as the queen of all textiles as it has a delicate touch and sensation when wearing. Silk caterpillars or moths spun their cocoon and form this cocoon silk fabric is collected. Mainly four types of silk fabric are used for manufacturing and they are muga silk mulberry silk, tasar silk and eri silk. Chiffon fabric is also a variation of silk fabric. it is made in a certain weaving technique and is made with various fabrics apart from silk and those are cotton, synthetic fibers or rayon. But chiffon fabric made from silk is most smooth and rich in quality comparing with other chiffon variations.
Industries in India have been expanding by leaps and bounds since independence. Despite the global economy experiencing downturns, the resilience of Indian entrepreneurs has driven the country from nothing to its zenith position. The fabrication industry is a crucial component to the country’s overall manufacturing statusThe future outlook of the industry is expected to grow even more, owing it to the development of infrastructure, favorable policies, new investments in the oil and gas, power projects, and petrochemical industries. Further growth in the manufacturing industries will also boost the growth of the fabrication industry. Since the export market is offering more opportunities for exploration, the contribution of India in global fabrication exports is anticipated to grow.The emerging trends such as outsourcing of fabrication services create opportunities for growth of the industry in India. Design services such as product improvement and maintenance, welding fabrication, structural fabrication, designing of manufacturing systems and product designing are increasingly being outsourced to Asian countries and India is among the top countries receiving the contracts. It is estimated that by the year 2020, India will be a $40 billion market for fabrication and engineering outsourcing services.Additionally, the Department of Commerce set a $125 billion target for engineering and fabrication exports for the 2013-2014 period. And so far, much has been achieved and many more opportunities are showing off in the Indian fabrication sector. The capital goods and turnover in India is expected to hit US$125.4 billion by the year 2017. The fabrication exports in India for the financial year 2014-2015 registered at US$70.7 billion, which was a 14.6% growth. This was greatly attributed to demand growth in the UAE and US. Apart from these typical markets, markets in Central and European nations such as Poland gives a huge promise.Most of the exports in India for its fabrication and engineering goods were directed to Europe and US, which accounts for more than 60% of all the exports. Recently, the exports from India to South Korea and Japan are also on the increase, rising to about 60%.Much of the growth experienced in the fabrication industry has also been attributed to the Indian government. The fabrication industry has a strategic importance to Indian economy owing it to the integration with other industrial segments. With the aim of improving the manufacturing sector, the Indian government has reduced excise duties on capital goods, factory gate tax, vehicles, and consumer durables. The government has also reduced basic custom duties from 10 to 5% on forged steel rings that are used in manufacturing bearings of electricity generators that are wind operated.Much of the developments experienced in the fabrication industry has been accounted by the government’s positive initiative. On its 2014-2015 Union Budget, the government offered an investment allowance at a rate of 15% to manufacturing companies that invest over $4.17 million within a year in machinery and new plants. Several steps have also been put in place to encourage companies to grow and perform even better.In general, the fabrication industry is a promising market. With the development in the associated industries such as infrastructure, the industry is expected to hit over $150 billion by 2017.
No matter what product you purchase, or what business you are in, creating your product can be easier and more efficient. The extensive range of glass fabric benefits allows for limitless applications. Review the attributes and consider where you can use them in your company.
Light weight and easy to wear
Resin compatibility, improves adhesion
Five times stronger than steel
Extreme temperature tolerance minus – 73°C to plus + 260°C
High surface quality
Stable and abrasion resistant
Non-sticks, non-toxic coatings that comply with USDA and FDA regulations
Microwave resistant and easy to clean -150°C to +260°C range in this application
Low friction, high tensile strength and uniform heat transfer
Anti-static and chemical inertness
You may not realize the advantage of fabric that offers strength, flexibility and is light enough to move around in unless your life depends on it. The department of defense uses this fabric in helmets, body armor and vehicles with excellent results.Compatibility to resin improves the fiber adhesion to surfaces frequently seen in the aerospace industry where the tolerance to extreme temperatures is critical. These unusually high degrees of heat resistance also make it suitable for heat-sealing applications. Drying conveyor belts, welding platens and thermal bonding are just a few examples.Rubber industries like it to the durable quality surface, it creates, and the non-stick high release properties in mold making. The material is abrasion resistant, strong and yet remains flexible enough to drape it around a curve.These coatings are safe for use in direct contact with food and unaffected by microwaves, one of the most common methods of drying. Easy clean up saves time and the material can be sterilized multiple times without deterioration.When used in high-energy insulation it improves efficiency, performance and safety. Glass fiber fabricators find it especially useful in their products because it’s resistant to solvents, oils, chemically stable, and an excellent thermal insulator. It can be used in applications most plastics can’t because its incombustible and self-extinguishing.Plastic sheets, insulation boards or blankets and glass based laminates like the impressive strength, low weight and non-corrosive advantages. This offers protection for electrical transformers, jigs and other metal parts that would otherwise corrode, making performance cost-effective.Gaskets, bearing surfaces and release sheets are some of the most demanding applications and the smooth surface, this produces in addition to the many other properties listed, makes this the best choice.PTFE glass fabric is also very popular in textile manufacturing – from the high temp processing of fibers to cylinder covers it does the job. Thermal bonding improves complicated processes, including lamination to foam or other synthetics and with easy release advantages.
Textiles & Fabrics Art is one of the oldest forms of art known to humanity. It employs plants, animals, or synthetic fibers, to create functional and decorative objects. It has also led to the early form of international trade between several countries. For example, Silk Road between India, Africa, Europe, and China; trade of Tyrian Purple Dye in Mediterranean; and International Textile Technology exchange led to industrial revolution in Europe.Generally, Textiles & Fabrics Art concentrates on materials and the manual labor that it requires. The simplest form of this is Felting. In Felting, animal fibers are matted using heat and moisture. Other processes used are Interlacing, Plaiting, Netting, Weaving, Sewing, and Embroidering. The materials used in this art form are Twigs, Leaves, Roots, Grasses, Filiform, Fibrous Elements, and numerous Artificial Preparations.Before moving any further, let us try to understand how a Textiles and Fabrics Art is made:o A Textiles and Fabrics Artwork starts out with Spinning and Plying Fibers to make Yarn.o The Yarn is then Knotted, Whorled, and Woven to make a pliable fabric.o This fabric can be used to make clothing and other soft furnishings. All these items put together is known as Textile. Textiles and Fabrics Artworks are usually employed to make clothing. They are also used to send societal signals, to decorate houses & surfaces, and to store & protect belongings.o The Textile is now decorated using Dyes & Printing to add Color & Pattern, Embroidery & Needlework, Tablet Weaving, and Lace-Making. Other construction methods used are Sewing, Knitting, Crochet, and Tailoring.o Several tools and techniques such as, Looms, Sewing Needles, and Pleating are also employed in making a Textiles and Fabrics Art.Once the Textiles & Fabrics Art is ready then, preserving and restoring it require attention. Both, restoration and preserving of an art are different from each other. In restoration, the artwork is brought back to some previous state, which is believed to be original. Conservation is concerned with preserving an art form, maintaining it so that it looks unspoiled, despite its age.Textiles & Fabrics Art is prone to several types of blemishing ills, most of them caused by environmental effects, harsh chemicals, variations in temperature & humidity, and wear & tear. To preserve your artwork, try protecting it from the damaging exposures. The process of conservation includes the Examination, Documentation, Treatment, and Prevention of Artwork by taking appropriate care. All this is supported by research and education. In addition, the damaged Textiles and Fabrics Artworks should immediately be repaired.
Fabrication is when a certain thing is influenced or controlled in order for it to develop into something else. Sadly, the most widespread usage of the word may have something to do with the how the fact is so frequently “fabricated” into out of the ordinary. On the other hand, the most helpful kind of fabrication is most likely the metal fabrication.It is considered that metal was exposed earlier than people learned how to inscribe, and that it was primarily used to create basic weapons and tools like spears and arrowheads. Since then, fabrication has arrived and is expanding its efficacy far ahead of the sphere of bludgeons and vital paraphernalia.Metal was initially used for vital devices. You might picture a prehistoric spear or arrowhead, fixed firmly with pigskin and feathers attached. These earliest instances of metal fabrication were discovered in caves, and for the most part each metal fabrication established was formed to be used. As far as we can put in the picture, these were the first cousins of the contemporary, mechanically knowledgeable, metal fabrications we observe these days.Several years ago fabricated metal parts assisted many primeval humans. Nowadays, things aren’t much dissimilar. Stainless steel, aluminum, iron copper, and above are all used to present us with the products we need every day, from automobile parts to metal fabrications for use by the armed, and the whole thing in the midst of.Fabrication TypesMetal fabrication is completed for a broad choice of applications as well as industries. Metal fabricated parts consist of the whole thing from aircraft components, car parts, boat propellers, holding shark tanks, weapons, cages, and more.• Contract assembly: Contract assembly relays to one customer contracting fabrication, or assembly work or machining to a knowledgeable supplier who has everything essential in the machinery.• Metal forming and bending: Metal forming and bending is completed through mandrels and shaped dies to twist tubular sections devoid of bending them while rolling machines are used to outline plate steel into a round division.• Cutting Plasma: Cutting plasma makes use of a plasma torch to slice changeable metal thickness, usually steel – with tremendous correctness. With a mixture of electricity and pressurized inert gas, metal fabricators generate a high motorized flow of pressure able to metal melting and concurrently blowing it away before it can dried out into the cut• Welding: is a traditional method of combining two metals. Somewhat special than cutting plasma, welding can make use of a number of power sources – together with heat, friction, electricity and even ultrasound.
You probably remember the last time you bought fabric for a quilt. If you’re like me, it wasn’t that long ago. Think about your experience. Perhaps you located the shade of blue you were looking for, or maybe there was a really good sale, so you went ahead and picked up a few yards for future use. Or, as often happens when one is wandering through a quilt shop but doesn’t intend to buy anything, the most delightful print jumps out, and you just have to take some home. No matter what the situation, there are common threads to most of our shopping experiences. First, little is required of you, except to choose what you like, and pay for it. Second, you probably pay a reasonable price. And third, you are likely to have a wide range of colors and prints to choose from.It was after such a shopping experience and a couple of new additions to my fabric stash that I thought about something I had never paid much attention to before. Where, in a pre-industrial society, did cloth come from? Weavers, of course. But what about a young society, like early New England during the time before and just after the revolutionary war? The majority of America was agricultural with very few towns; people produced for themselves what they needed to survive, including their cloth. Home production of fabric is a time- and labor- intensive chore, and although I am fascinated with the process, I am all the more grateful for our modern conveniences.Linen and wool were the primary fabrics used by early Americans. They grew flax to make linen, and they raised sheep for wool, using methods that date back thousands of years. Linen can be traced as far back as 6000 B.C., to ancient Egypt’s mummy wrappings and togas from ancient Greece. Evidence of wool use can be found as early as the stone age, about 10,000 years ago.Production of linen fabricKnowledge of linen production came to America early in the 18th century with the immigration of Scotch-Irish colonists. The process required that flax seeds be planted, and the fields kept weeded. Harvesting was usually done after the plant’s pretty blue flowers bloomed, although sometimes the plants were harvested before they reached maturity. An immature plant yielded fewer fibers, but also made a softer, silkier linen. After harvesting, the flax was dried and the seeds from the mature plants were removed for next year’s crop.Next, the connection between the inside fibers and the outer stalk was destroyed by a process called retting. This was done by soaking the flax with dew, or pond or river water. When the bond holding fibers to the plant had decayed enough, a process that sometimes took several days, the outer stalks were broken. Then the stalks were pulled, scraped, or beaten off the inside fibers. Breaking the flax and scraping the fibers free was a physically tiring chore, but the work did not end there.Once free from the stalk, the fibers received a good brushing, using finer and finer brushes, until they were soft and “flaxen.” From this state the fibers were spun into thread, using a small flax spinning wheel, the type most commonly found in a 19th century parlor. If linen cloth was desired, the thread was then woven. Sixteen to eighteen months could pass between the time the seeds were planted and when the spinning began.Production of wool fabricWool came from a similar process, except that instead of planting, weeding, and harvesting, the sheep had to be fed, housed, and cared for. Sheep were so important to New Englanders that many new immigrants were advised to bring their sheep with them to the New World. When the time came to shear the sheeps’ fleece, they were first washed as well as possible by leading them through a river if available, or using some other source of water. Once cut, the fleece was washed again in a lye solution and then carded, which was somewhat like brushing hair, except that two cards (wooden paddles with wire teeth) were used, one in each hand. Spinning of the fleece into woolen thread or yarn was done with a large spinning wheel that did not have a foot treadle. Instead, the spinner fed the fleece by stepping forward, and drew out the yarn by stepping back, a routine that resembled walking in place.Wool found its way into all three layers of most quilts. Because families spent their time working hard just to survive, and because of a limited selection of fabrics, there was rarely time to piece the top of a quilt. Instead, most quilt tops consisted of a solid piece of wool. For the top fabric the best wool was used, with the most stunning dye (also done at home) or the fabric with the most detailed woven pattern. Wool of a plainer color and weave was used for the back of the quilt, and bits of fleece, too short to spin, were used as batting. Wool provided warmth and was relatively easy to work with. Linen thread, because of its strength, was used to stitch it all together, sometimes with beautiful medallion designs.Quilting has changed and evolved a lot since my ancestors quilted coverlets for the very functional purpose of keeping warm during cold New England winters. Now, many of the quilts we create are intended not just to keep us physically warm, but to play a role in warming our hearts as well. One of my favorite aspects of quilting is choosing my fabrics, deliberately picking my colors and prints. It never takes me months to accomplish this, and it is certainly not strenuous labor. I have often wondered whether not being able to purchase my fabrics, if I had lived 250 years ago, would take something away from my overall quilting experience. On the other hand, if I had always grown and woven my own fabric, I would probably wonder if I would reap as much pleasure from a quilt made from cloth that I had not labored over so lovingly.
Creating beautiful, functional architecture and installation art out of fabric is a phenomenon of the modern age. It is only in the past 100 years that fabric has been used for large structures such as bridges, domes, as well as canopies, shelters, and buildings. Unlike materials such as stone or wood, fabric is flexible and dynamic, adding an extra dimension to artistic works. Artists and architects all over the world have chosen to use fabric for its unique, expressive features.1. ColombiaAt a busy roundabout in Cucuta, Colombia, a pedestrian bridge constructed from bamboo and fabric was installed in 2009. Likely the largest bamboo and tensioned fabric structure ever built, the bridge has become well-known, even winning an Award for Excellence from the Industrial Fabrics Association International. A defining part of Cucuta’s urban landscape, the bridge is popular with the city’s residents.2. New ZealandArtist Anish Kapoor creates art for both permanent and temporary installation. One of his most stunning permanent pieces resides at ‘The Farm’, an outdoor art gallery near Auckland, New Zealand. The bright red fabric sculpture is 84 meters long, weighing in at over 90,000 kilograms. It consists of two 25 meter steel ellipses, one aligned horizontally and one vertically. These are connected and covered by PVC coated polyester fabric that weighs 7,200 kilograms on its own. A special cut was made in the hillside to hold the sculpture. When it is looked through, the sculpture gives the viewer a kaleidoscopic way to see the surrounding countryside.3. South AfricaThe Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium in Port Elizabeth, South Africa was constructed for the 2010 football World Cup. Port Elizabeth is called the ‘Windy City’ because of its location on the coast, and the fabric stadium was built specifically to protect fans from the local elements. It is a handsome, open-air structure with translucent fabric sides, meant to allow natural light through to the inner space. The fabric is Teflon, because it is easy to maintain and lasts a long time. 22,000 square meters of Teflon were used.4. United StatesThe work ‘Surrounded Islands’ was created in 1983 by Christo and Jeanne-Claude, a married couple who design environmental works of art. The islands surrounded were in Biscayne Bay, near the coast of Florida. 603, 850 square meters of pink polypropylene fabric was used to cover the coastlines of 11 islands. The fabric was left in place for two weeks so the public could admire the artwork. Before the islands were surrounded, workers for the project spent about a year cleaning up rubbish from each land mass and its surrounding waters.